Acidosis - Excessive acidity of body fluids due to accumulation of acids as may happen in diabetes or kidney disease.
Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction (HTR or AHTR) - Acute hemolytic transfusion reaction can cause serious, potentially fatal consequences. HTRs are most often caused by ABO Blood type incompatibility between the Blood product needed by the patient and red Blood cells given the patient during transfusion.
Agranulocytes - The leukocytes which lack specific granules; however, these cells may or may not contain azurophilic granules. Agranulocytes are spherical in shape, contain nuclei and include lymphocytes and monocytes. These cells are part of the formed elements of whole Blood. Whole Blood - A general description for a sample of Blood taken from the venous or arterial circulation. It is composed of Blood cells, platelets, and plasma.
Albumin - Major Blood protein. Monitors nutritional status, or sometimes kidney status in protein-losing kidney problems.
Aliquots - A smaller part of a larger portion, separated, set aside or drawn off.
Alkaline Phosphatase - A liver enzyme, elevated in obstructive conditions of the liver.
Alleles - Alternate forms or varieties of a gene. The alleles for a trait occupy the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes and thus govern the same trait. However, because they are different, their action may result in different expressions of that trait.
Alloantibody - A type of antibody directed against substances recognized as foreign to the host. (see Alloimmunization)
Allogeneic or Allogeneic Blood - Blood from someone else that matches yours, usually from a volunteer Blood donor. Also referred to as homologous Blood.
Alloimmunization or Alloantibody - The process whereby antibodies are formed which are directed towards antigens from other people, including leukocytes. It is one of the most serious transfusion complications.
American Association of Blood Banks - see AABB.
Amino Acids - The organic molecules that are building blocks of proteins. There are at 20 different kinds of amino acids in living things. Proteins are composed of different combinations of amino acids assembled in chain-like molecules. Amino acids are primarily composed of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen. process of making an antibody against a foreign antigen.
Amylase - A pancreatic digestive enzyme. Elevated in pancreatitis, or with injury to the bowel.
Antibody - Proteins that react with antigens on red Blood cells and may destroy transfused red Blood cells.
Anticoagulant - A substance that prevents the clotting or thickening of Blood.
Antigen - A substance on the surface of red Blood cells that elicits an immune response when transfused into a patient who lacks that antigen.
Antinuclear Antibody - (ANA) basically a test for lupus and other auto-immune inflammatory diseases.
Antiserum - Human Blood serum containing antibodies that are specific for one or more antigens.
Anemia - weakness, fatigue, and paleness resulting from a deficiency of red Blood cells or insufficient amounts of hemoglobin molecules within the red cells.
Anisocytosis - Condition which is characterized by a considerable variation in the size of cells, especially red Blood cells.
Apheresis - A procedure where whole Blood is removed from the body and desired component(s), such as plasma or platelets is retained and the remainder of the Blood is returned to the donor.
Aplastic Anemia - An anemia caused by deficient red Blood cell production by the bone marrow.
Autoimmune - The process of making antibodies against ones self (ones intrinsic antigens).
Autologous Blood - Autologous Blood (donation) is Blood drawn from one individual to be given back to that individual, or a close very Blood match designee, as the need for transfusion arises. Exclusive or supplemental use of autologous Blood can eliminate or reduce adverse effects of transfusion. Patients who receive their own Blood receive the safest possible Blood transfusions. Reactions due to components of Blood such as white Blood cells, platelets and serum protein are eliminated with autologous Blood.
Bilirubin - The yellow-red pigment of human bile. Small amounts of it are normally found in Blood and urine. At high bilirubin levels, Blood and urine change color and the skin becomes yellow or jaundiced. This is one of the symptoms of mismatched Blood transfusions or mother-fetus incompatibility in Blood type.
Blood - The fluid which circulates throughout the body carrying nourishment and oxygen to the cells and tissue, and at the same time takes away waste matter and carbon dioxide.
Blood Bank - A Blood Bank place where whole blood or plasma is typed, processed, and appropriately stored for future use in Blood transfusion.
Blood Bank Laws - Blood banks are controlled by state and federal laws. A sample of Blood bank law, Blood bank rules and Blood plasma laws and rules is HERE.
Blood Cells - The red (erythrocytes) and white (leukocytes) Blood cells which comprise the minor portion of whole Blood.
Blood Count - The complete Blood count, or CBC.
Blood Culture - The normally sterile specimen of a patient's Blood that is incubated with a nutrient medium; if bacteria are present, the specimen will become cloudy with germs as they multiply rapidly.
Bloodmobile - Blood·mo·bile (Blŭd'mə-bēl') n. - A motor vehicle equipped for collecting Blood from Blood donors. Mobile Medical Blood Collection Vehicle Visit the Bloodmobile website. In municipal codes Bloodmobile is defined as "A vehicle, or portable structure transported by a vehicle, easily transportable in one or more sections, which is used to provide Blood collection services on a temporary basis in any one location." By most local community codes, a Bloodmobile may be parked in one spot for a maximum of 72 hours at one time.
Blood Smear - A laboratory procedure for examination of a small drop of Blood spread over a glass slide.
Blood type - Everyones Blood falls into one of four groups, or types: A, B, AB or O. The type depends on the presence or absence of certain substances on red Blood cells. Blood types are inherited.
Bone marrow - The soft tissue located in the cavities of bones which is responsible for Blood cell and platelet production.
Buffy Coat - A thin grayish white layer of white Blood cells (leukocytes) and platelets covering the top of the packed red Blood cells of a hematocrit.
BUN - Blood urea nitrogen. A measure of the kidneys' ability to excrete urea, the chief waste product of protein breakdown. Elevated in renal failure; influenced by the amount of protein intake in the diet.
Cortisol - The body's natural stress-fighting and anti-inflammatory hormone.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) - (kroits ' felt - yä ' kôp) A disease (also known as "Classic CJD") that creates a protein plaque on the brain and eventually leads to a rapid death. It usually occurs in patients over the age of 60.
New Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (nvCJD) - A new variation of CJD that initially presents itself with psychiatric symptoms at a much younger age, on average 28 years old, than traditional CJD. The disease always leads to death and runs its course in about 18 months.
Component - Blood is made up of different "parts" or components: red Blood cells, plasma, platelets and several types of white Blood cells. Donated Blood is often separated into components so that patients can be transfused only with the "part" of Blood needed.
Codominance - The situation in which two different alleles for a trait are expressed unblended in the phenotype of heterozygous individuals. Neither allele is dominant or recessive, so that both influence the phenotype. Type AB Blood is an example. Such traits are said to be codominant.
Creatinine - A measure of the kidneys' ability to excrete waste. Comparing the excretion of creatinine to urea helps assess kidney function versus dehydration.
Crenation - A process by which red Blood cells shrink or shrivel, giving a notched appearance to the cells' profiles.
Cross Match - The finding of exact similarities between a patients Blood and a donors Blood. This process involves careful and exacting laboratory tests.
Cytomegalo Virus (CMV) - A virus that resides in leukocytes. In certain patient populations, CMV infection can cause fever, hepatitis, pneumonia, and severe brain damage and can ultimately lead to death. In North America, 50% or more of the adult population has been exposed to the virus, making transfusion-transmitted CMV a high risk.
Directed Donation - Blood donated by a friend or family member for use by a designated patient.
Dilutional Coagulopathy - Usually seen in patients with trauma after receiving multiple red Blood transfusions. The transfusions dilute the bodys own platelets and coagulation factors, which may predispose to bleeding. These individuals may require platelet and plasma transfusions.
Donate or Donation - To give Blood. A normal Blood donation is comprised of a little less than one U. S. pint. Specific components of whole Blood can also be donated. There are 3 basic categories of Blood donation. The first is Voluntary Blood donation; a process of Blood donation where the donor donates Blood without accepting in return any consideration in cash or in kind from any source. The second is Exchange/Replacement Blood donation; a process where a person donates Blood for his/her family members or relatives or friends, and takes the Blood after it is tested and/or take the same unit of Blood from the Blood Banks stock in exchange for the donated Blood. The third is Autologous Blood donation, where an individual donates Blood for ones own use or reuse.
DNA Testing - DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic blueprint that determines the biological characteristics of an individual. DNA is found in the cells of the human body. Upon conception, a child inherits one half of its DNA from the mother and the other half from the father. This unique combination of DNA perfectly matches that of the biological parents of that child. For DNA testing to take place, cells are sampled from of the mother, the child and the father. In the laboratory, these cells are tested.
Dura Matter - The tough fibrous membrane covering the brain and the spinal cord and lining the inner surface of the skull. It is the outermost of the three meninges that surround the brain and spinal cord.
Electrolytes - Electrolytes are a large category of substances dissolved in plasma. The balance of water and salt is critical to good health. Electrolyte testing reveals important indicators of the amount of water and salt in your body, including: sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, bicarbonate (carbon dioxide) and magnesium. These chemicals are essential in many bodily functions including fluid balance, nerve conduction, muscle contraction (including the heart), Blood clotting and pH balance.
Engraftment - The process by which transplanted or transfused cells (for example, after a bone marrow transplant) begin to grow and reproduce themselves within the recipient.
Ethnic - Referring to people with origins from different parts of the world.
Erythroblastosis Fetalis - A Blood disease of fetuses and newborn infants caused by the mother's anti-Rh+ antibodies agglutinating her infant's Rh+ Blood. Symptoms include life threatening anemia, jaundice, fever, swollen tissues from edema, and an enlarged liver and spleen. Serious cases of Erythroblastosis fetalis are treated by Blood replacement. This condition is also referred to as "hemolytic anemia" and "hydrops fetalis".
Erythrocytapheresis - An apheresis procedure where red Blood cells are collected.
Erythrocytes - The relatively large red cells in Blood that transport oxygen from the lungs to all of the living tissue in the body. Normally, 40% to 45% of human Blood volume consists of erythrocytes.
Extracorporeal - Blood circulation occurring outside of the body, for example, in an apheresis machine during donation.
Factor VIII Rich Cryoprecipitate - Contains extra clotting factor used to control bleeding in hemophiliacs.
False-negative - a Blood test result that is incorrectly normal in a person who has the suspected disease.
False-positive - a Blood test result that is incorrectly abnormal in a person who does not have the suspected disease.
Febrile Non-Hemolytic Transfusion Reaction (FNHTR) - A transfusion complication defined as a rise in temperature by one degree Celsius or more during or within 24 hours of the completion of a Blood transfusion.
Ferritin - An iron-carrying protein which is a more accurate monitor of long term body iron status than the Blood iron level, which varies with diet.
FFP - Fresh Frozen Plasma; a part of whole Blood.
Fibrinogen - A protein involved in coagulation. Fibrinogen reacts with other molecules to produce Blood clots.
Folate - A B-vitamin.
Formed Elements - The red and white Blood cells and platelets found in whole Blood.
Fractionation - The process by which Blood plasma is separated into some of its different component parts.
GOT, GPT (SGOT, SGPT) - Liver enzymes. Elevated for a variety of reasons. Checked for suspected liver disease, also for suspected mononucleosis, or to monitor the effect of long term drug therapy on the liver.
Graft-Versus-Host Disease (GVHD) - A disease caused by the infusion or transplantation of immune cells from one individual into another.
Granulocytes - A type of white Blood cell that attacks and destroys foreign substances. These are leukocytes which have specific granules. The three different types of granulocytes have different types of specific granules. Granulocytes are spherical in shape, contain nuclei and include neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. These cells are part of the formed elements of whole Blood.
Haplotypes - The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of genes; sets of single alleles or closely linked genes that tend to be inherited together, such as those of the major histocompatibility complex; portions of phenotypes determined by genes located on one of a pair of chromosomes.
Hematocrit - The percentage of packed red Blood cells found in a unit volume of whole Blood.
Hematologic - Of the Blood.
Hematologist - A medical term referring to a Blood specialist.
Hematopoiesis (Hemopoiesis) - The process of formation, development, and differentiation of the formed elements of whole Blood.
Hemochromatosis (HH) - A hereditary disorder that causes your body tissues to absorb and store too much iron. One cannot "catch" Hemochromatosis. It is a hereditary condition, primarily. The disease (which is actually many diseases) has also been known to develop as a result of dietary iron intake in sufficient quantity. Its worst effects are preventable, by early diagnosis and treatment, but, if the patient is not found in time, it is crippling and potentially fatal.
Hemoglobin - The molecule in the red Blood cell that carries oxygen. Hemoglobin combines with oxygen in the lungs and releases it in the tissues. It is what makes Blood red.
Hemolysis - A process characterized by the alternations in the red Blood cells' integrity resulting in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding medium in which the cells are suspended.
Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn (HDN) - Prior to 1940 the occurrence of severe neonatal jaundice, without known cause, in succeeding infants born to the same woman, was a relatively uncommon disease, though very well known, icterus gravis familiaris, now universally known as HDN.
The most cause of HDN is maternal alloimmunization, possibly ABO incompatibility, but most cases documented cases of clinically severe HDN have been associated with Rh(D) incompatibility. HDN may occur when an Rh negative woman is carrying a fetus with an Rh positive genotype. A feto-maternal bleed resulting in fetal red cells entering the mother's circulation may cause Rh immunization. Rh HDN does not occur during the first pregnancy, but may occur in subsequent pregnancies.
Hemostasis - The process of clotting.
Hepatitis B Surface Antigen - An indicator of a probable hepatitis B carrier ("serum hepatitis".)
Hepatitis C (HCV) - In the United States, the most common Blood-borne infection and a major cause of liver damage. HCV is spread primarily through contact with infected Blood. It is responsible for 8,000 to 10,000 deaths in the United States annually. Many people have the disease for years before it is detected.
Heterozygous - A genotype consisting of two different alleles of a gene for a particular trait (Aa). Individuals who are heterozygous for a trait are referred to as heterozygotes. (see Homozygous)
HLA Type - Antigens present on most cells of the body which are unique to the individual. It may be considered to be the individuals genetic fingerprint.
Homologous Chromosomes - Chromosomes that are paired during meiosis. Such chromosomes are alike with regard to size and also position of the centromere. They also have the same genes, but not necessarily the same alleles, at the same locus or location.
Homozygous - Having the same allele at the same locus on both members of a pair of homologous chromosomes. Homozygous also refers to a genotype consisting of two identical alleles of a gene for a particular trait. An individual may be homozygous dominant (AA) or homozygous recessive (aa). Individuals who are homozygous for a trait are referred to as homozygotes.
Howell-Jolly Bodies - Spherical or ovoid nuclear fragments found in newly differentiated erythrocytes. Red Blood cells with these bodies appear in greater numbers after a splenectomy.
HTLV - A virus that may cause Blood or nerve disease.
Human Serum Albumin (HSA) - A plasma protein very important in maintaining fluid balance in the Blood. Important in maintaining Blood pressure, regulating fatty acids, and hormone transport. Clinical uses include Blood volume replacement during shock, serious burns and surgeries, as an adjunct during kidney dialysis and carrying drugs through the Bloodstream.
Hypercalcemia - An excess of calcium in the Blood.
Hypocalcemia - A deficiency of calcium in the Blood.
Hypothermia - A condition of characterized by low body temperature.
Hypovolemia - An abnormally low volume of Blood circulating through the body. It may result in hypovolemic shock.
Hypoxemia - Low oxygen levels in the Blood.
Immunoglobin Alpha (IgA) - A type of immunoglobulin present in Blood and body secretions which may aid in fighting infections.
Immunosuppressed - A condition brought about by disease or chemotherapy where the individual is highly susceptible to infection.
Intraoperative - The period of time during a surgical procedure. (see Preoperative, Postoperative and Perioperative)
Irradiated Red Blood Cells - Red Blood cells treated with exposure to radiation in order to inactivate white Blood cells which may cause graft-versus-host disease.
Ketsuekigata - The study of personality analysis by Blood type. It has become a nearly indispensible part of Japanese popular culture. Most of Japanese women and members of the younger generation believe that there is some correlation between Blood type and personality.
Leukocyte - The bodys own white Blood cells or leukocytes (WBCs) fight disease and maintain immune function in the Blood. In general, white Blood cells in a Blood transfusion serve no purpose, but are transfused along with the red Blood cells, platelets or plasma. These unnecessary passengers can carry viruses, immune suppress patients and release toxic substances.
Leukocyte-Reduced Blood Components - Helps to prevent Blood transfusion reactions caused by white cells contaminating red cell and platelet preparations and may reduce the likelihood of certain infections. A filtering process is used.
Leukocytosis - A condition characterized by an abnormally high total number of circulating leukocytes.
Leukopenia - A condition characterized by an abnormally low total number of circulating leukocytes.
Leukoreduced - Removal of white Blood cells from products in order to prevent certain transfusion reactions such as fever, chills, and alloimmunization.
Liver Enzymes - Most often SGPT, SGOT; or alkaline phosphatase. Injury to the liver from infection or obstruction of bile flow causes damage to the cells; they leak various enzymes into the Bloodstream; their detection in increased amounts most often means injury to the liver.
Lymphocytes - A leukocyte that directs the formation of antibodies, and that has memory.
Macrocytes - Cells which are abnormally large, especially red Blood cells.
Magnesium - An essential Blood salt. Necessary for nerve function. Most usually ordered in newborns.
Meiosis - Cell division in specialized tissues of ovaries and testes which results in the production of sperm or ova. Meiosis involves two divisions and results in four daughter cells, each containing only half the original number of chromosomes--23 in the case of humans. These cells can develop into gametes.
Metabolic - Pertaining to all chemical functions within the body.
Microcytes - Cells which are abnormally small, especially red Blood cells.
Mono Spot - This is the more quickly performed Blood test for infectious mononucleosis.
NAT - Nucleic Acid Amplification Testing - NAT testing is expected to further reduce transfusion-associated transmission of HIV and hepatitis C. This type of testing will be the most manually intensive, most complex and expensive testing ever undertaken to screen the Blood supply. NAT testing, which began in May, 1999, is subject to FDA approval.
Neonatal Isoimmune Thrombocytopenia - An alloimmune disorder characterized by low platelets at birth which can be accompanied by severe bleeding.
Neoplastic Disease - Another term for cancer.
Neurologic - Refers to the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
Nonhemolytic - Refers to transfusion reactions where the red Blood cell is not destroyed.
Optisol - The trade name for a solution containing sodium, dextrose, adenine and mannitol. Optisol supports red cell survival and extends the shelf life to 42 days.
Perioperative - The period of time extending from the time of hospitalization for surgery through to the time of discharge from the hospital. (see Preoperative, Intraoperative and Postoperative)
Perioperative Autologous Transfusions (PAT) - The recovery, washing and reinfusion of a patients own Blood, which has been lost, during and after surgery in order to reduce the need for transfusions.
Peripheral Stem Cell Collection and Processing - The removal, separation and freezing of peripheral Blood or marrow, which contain stem cells, for later reinfusion to restore a patients Blood manufacturing capability after radiation or chemotherapy.
Phlebotomy - To puncture a vein for the purpose of withdrawing Blood; having to do with Blood transfusion, diagnosis, or experiment, and treatment.
Plasma - The non-cellular liquid component of un-clotted whole Blood. Plasma is the liquid medium in which the formed elements of Blood are suspended and comprises the major portion of whole Blood. Plasma is composed of 92% water, 7% protein and 1% minerals, containing 6.5-8.0 grams of protein per deciliter of Blood. The main proteins in plasma are: albumin (60%), globulins (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta and gamma globulins (immunoglobulins) and clotting proteins (especially fibrinogen). These proteins function to maintain oncotic pressure (especially albumin), transport substances such as lipids, hormones, medications, vitamins, and other nutrients. These proteins are also part of the immune system (immunoglobulins), help Blood to clot (clotting factors), maintain pH balance, and are enzymes in chemical reactions throughout the body. Plasma is used to treat clotting disorders, burn victims and shock.
Plasma Purpura - see Purpura.
Plateletpheresis - An apheresis procedure where platelets are collected.
Platelets (PLTs) - Cytoplasmic fragments of megakaryocytes (bone marrow cells). Platelets contain cytoplasmic granules; however, they lack nuclei and are part of the formed elements of Blood. They are colorless cells whose main function is to control bleeding. Platelets are essential to normal Blood clotting. They can be destroyed during treatment for cancer, leukemia, aplastic anemia and other diseases.
Platelet Transfusion Refractoriness - The inability of platelet transfusions to adequately increase the platelet count.
Pooling - The mixing together, in a vat, of the Blood plasma that has been separated from the whole Blood donated by thousands to tens of thousands of Blood donors for purposes of facilitating further treatment and ease of management of resources.
Postoperative - The period of time after a surgical operation. (see Preoperative, Intraoperative and Perioperative)
Potassium - One of the serum electrolytes.
Preoperative - The period of time before surgery. (see Intraoperative, Postoperative and Perioperative)
Prion - A protein molecule that lacks nucleic acid, that is, no DNA or RNA, often considered to be the cause of various infectious diseases of the nervous system (such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and scrapie.) Very resilient, not easy to kill.
Prophylactic - Preventative.
Protein Electrophoresis - A Blood test to determine the levels of the immune proteins (globulins, or antibodies), and albumin.
Protime (PT) - Prothrombin time. A test of the Blood clotting system and a general test of the liver's capacity to synthesize needed Blood proteins.
Purpura - Bruising associated with receiving a Blood transfusion (may occur on the skin or mucous membranes).
Red Cells (RBCs) - Blood cells (erythrocytes) which appear as biconcave disks, lack nuclei and comprise the largest number of cells of the formed elements of whole Blood. Red cells transport oxygen to body cells and remove carbon dioxide. Red cells contain iron in the hemoglobin.
Renal - Relating to the kidney.
Reticulocytes - Newly differentiated erythrocytes which contain fine thread-like strands (network) of RNA (ribonucleic acids). The RNA strands may be demonstrated by supravital staining with methylene blue.
Rh - The Rh factor is an inherited Blood group on red Blood cells like the ABO Blood types. About 85% of the people in this country have it. Those who have it are "Rh-positive," those who do not are "Rh-negative."
Romanowsky-Type Stains - Blood smear dyes having modified mixtures of eosin and methylene blue. Wright's and Giemsa's stains are examples of these types of Blood smear stains.
Scrapie - Scrapie is a disease, a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy, similar to nvCJD that occurs in sheep, goats and other animals.
Screening Tests - Blood tests used to try to detect a disease when there is little or no evidence of a suspected disease. (see Diagnostic Tests)
Sedimentation Rate (Sed Rate) - A nonspecific measure of inflammatory response anywhere in the body; this test is elevated (above the normal range) in infections and a wide variety of so-called inflammatory diseases, for example rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, or inflammatory bowel disease such as Crohn disease.
Sepsis - Also known as gram-negative bacteremia and gram-positive bacteremia. An overwhelming bacterial infection of the Blood and body organs caused by bacteria that has entered body tissue, most often through a wound or incision, that leads to the formation of pus, and/or to the spread of the bacteria throughout the blood stream.
Serum - The noncellular liquid phase resulting from the clotting of a sample whole Blood or plasma. Serum is equivalent to plasma without its clotting elements.
Sickle Cell Disease - A disease in which the affected person makes an abnormal hemoglobin. Sickle cell disease is inherited.
Spectrin - The major cytoskeleton protein, along with certain integral proteins, responsible for maintaining the biconcave shape of erythrocytes.
Systeme Internationale (SI) - A version of the metric system used by Blood laboratories, mostly outside of the United States, that differs slightly from the U. S. standard.
Transfusion - Replacing Blood or Blood components a body has lost in surgery, through an accident, or as a result of medical treatment such as chemotherapy.
Thrombocytopenia - A low platelet count.
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (TTP) - A disease state in which red Blood cells and platelets are destroyed and the body produces excessive Blood clots which may damage the kidneys and nervous system.
White Blood Cells (WBCs or Leukocytes) - Spherical shaped cells which contain nuclei and comprise the smaller number of cells of the formed elements of whole Blood. The major portion of the buffy coat is composed of white Blood cells. White Cells are protective cells in the Bloodstream. They attack bacteria by squeezing through capillary walls to reach the area of infection. (see Leukocytes)
Whole Blood - A general description for a sample of Blood taken from the venous or arterial circulation. It is composed of Blood cells, platelets, and plasma.
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last updated 10/10/2005 bloodbook.com